Metastatic cancer and pancreatic, Duplicate citations

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This type of cancer has a high mortality, and the overall survival is also low.

In these conditions, researchers are always looking for improving the therapy. In this presentation, we mention the histological types of pancreatic cancer, the importance of systemic therapy for operable cases pre- and post-surgeryand of chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic cancer. New therapeutic agents have been introduced, that appear to give new hope for a more efficient treatment. Acest cancer are o mortalitate ridicată, iar supravieţuirea globală este de asemenea scăzută.

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  • Cancerul pancreatic

În aceste condiţii, se caută mereu îmbunătăţirea terapiei. În acest articol prezentăm tipurile histologice de cancer al pancreasului, alături de importanţa terapiei sistemice pentru cazurile operabile pre- şi post-chirurgical şi a chimioterapiei pentru boala metastatică.

Sunt prezentaţi, de asemenea, noi agenţi terapeutici care par a da speranţe pentru un tratament mai eficient. According to Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, there was an alarming increase of pancreatic cancer deaths in the United States of America in The highest incidence of pancreatic cancer is registered in western countries Northern America and Europeand the lowest incidence - in Africa and Asia.

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In Romania, the age-standardised rate perpeople was 7. Risk factors For exocrine pancreatic cancer Smoking metastatic cancer and pancreatic one of the most important risk factors for pancreatic cancer, overweight and obesity.

Other risk factors are: age almost all patients with pancreatic cancer are older than 45 and about two-thirds are at least years-oldgender men are slightly more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than womenrace African Americans are slightly more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than whitesand family history pancreatic cancer seems to run in some families. Inherited gene changes mutations can be passed from parent to child.

Thirty-five percent of patients with pancreatic cancer have locally advanced unresectable disease at diagnosis. Currently, there are no validated biomarkers, efforts being made to identify molecular factors or biomarkers that predict the response to therapy in order to maximize the treatment efficacy and avoid unnecessary toxic effects for patients who do not respond to this combination of chemotherapy. Also, machine learning analysis of medical imaging has proven the ability to predict the response to one of the two chemotherapy regimens.

Familial pancreatitis, usually caused by mutations in the PRSS1 gene. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, caused by defects in the STK11 gene. This syndrome is also linked with polyps in the digestive tract and several other cancers. It can lead to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

Cancerul pancreatic

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and cancers can also be caused by genetic metastatic cancer and pancreatic, such as: Neurofibromatosis, type 1, which is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. This syndrome leads to an increased risk for many tumors, including somatostatinomas.

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This syndrome leads to an increased risk of tumors of the parathyroid gland, the metastatic cancer and pancreatic gland, and the islet cells of the pancreas.

Other conditions incriminated in the occurrence of pancreatic cancer are: diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Some factors are unclear and induced controversy: diets high in red and processed meatslack of physical activity, coffee, alcohol 4.

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Less common types of pancreatic exocrine carcinoma are: adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas with giant cells.

Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas functioning NET : gastrinomas, insulinomas, somatostatinomas, VIPomas, PPomas from cells that make pancreatic polypeptide. Benign and precancerous lesions in the pancreas: serous cystic neoplasms: are almost always benign; mucinous cystadenomas: almost always occur in women and some of them can progress metastatic cancer and pancreatic cancer; intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: are benign tumors, they sometimes become cancer if not treated; solid pseudopapillary neoplasms - are benign tumors but need surgical treatment 5.

Treatment Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure for exocrine pancreatic cancer, but metastatic cancer and pancreatic 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation.

Local unresectability is usually but not always due to vascular invasion 6. We will refer in this presentation mainly to the systemic therapy. For borderline resectable disease, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is indicated 7. A large, multicenter, retrospective analysis published online in February 13th in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons indicates that the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy, but not radiation, reduces the risk for distant recurrences and increases overall survival 9.

After this study, 6 months of gemcitabine became the standard of care in the adjuvant setting of resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Because of the positive outcome observed with the use of 5-FU or gemcitabine, the ESPAC-3 trial set out to investigate whether one of these agents was superior to the other.

There were no differences in the median OS of approximately 23 months, but 5-FU was associated with a higher rate of grades 3 to 4 toxicity, including mucositis, diarrhea, and myelosuppression Patients receiving GEM have a median survival of 6.

Etapa I În stadiul I cancerul pancreatic se găsește numai în pancreas, dar creșterea locală afectează mai mult de un singur strat de celule. Deși chirurgia pentru înlăturarea tumorii este cel mai frecvent tratament, radioterapia pentru cancerul pancreatic rezecabil în stadiul I este adesea recomandată pentru a asigura că toate celulele canceroase au fost ucise. Deși chirurgia pentru înlăturarea tumorii este cel mai frecvent tratament, radioterapia pentru cancerul pancreatic din stadiul II resectabil este recomandată adesea pentru a asigura uciderea tuturor celulelor canceroase și pentru a reduce riscul de răspândire sau de întoarcere a cancerului.

The combinations of GEM and 5-FU or capecitabine, irinotecan, cis- or oxaliplatin do not confer a major advantage in survival even in large randomized phase III trials, and should not be used as standard first line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of randomized trials with a combination of GEM and platinum analogues or of GEM and capecitabine suggested a survival benefit for these combinations for patients with a good PS.

This study concluded that was a suggestion of a metastatic cancer and pancreatic effect on survival in patients with metastatic disease.

Immune checkpoint therapy In an analysis made inthe results were not yet conclusive. Most clinical studies on immune checkpoint inhibitors for papilom cum se tratează pastilele cancer are not yet completed and are still recruiting patients. Among the completed trials, we have data of a preliminary nature such as delayed disease progression and enhanced overall survival after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors in mono- or combination therapy.

However, due to small sample sizes, major results are not yet identifiable Bibliografie 1. Alexander M. Seufferlein, J. Bachet, E. Van Cutsem, P. Articole din ediţiile anterioare.